19-04-2021 / Endocrinology & Diabetes

Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes - Symptoms, Causes and More

Diabetes is one of India's most common diseases that can be seen in almost every age group and has been identified as a pathway to many more chronic diseases. Let us start with knowing what this disease is, followed by its types, causes, and prevention.

Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes - Symptoms, Causes and More
Mazia AhmedMazia Ahmed

Mazia Ahmed

MSc Nutrition Science, Ph.D. Scholar

Table of Content

Introduction

By now, we have managed to find out the cure for almost all kinds of diseases, while the solution isn't triumphant enough for many of them. There are diseases about which people have a huge misconception, and the mass isn't aware of the possible consequences. This article will revolve around one such disease about which the people are not sufficiently educated and are prone to believe the stereotypical ideas instead of accurate knowledge.  Diabetes is one of India's most common diseases that can be seen in almost every age group and has been identified as a pathway to many more chronic diseases. Let us start with knowing what this disease is, followed by its types, causes, and prevention.

Infographics Diabetes in India

What is Diabetes?

  • Diabetes is a situation when the blood sugar of the body is high in the longer run. In

    sulin hormone is responsible for transporting glucose from the food eaten to the body cells for energy. In diabetes, the insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas, isn't produced enough to make the blood glucose reach body cells. This results in glucose accumulation in the blood, making way for diabetes in a person over time. 

  • The carbohydrates extracted from the food we eat are transformed into glucose which is further provided to the body cells to produce energy. This failure to produce enough insulin makes the glucose level high in the body, also known as Hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that causes high blood sugar levels. It can be chronic for a human, and the only way to curb it is by identifying it in its initial stage. The blood pressure doesn't remain at the prescribed level but is on the higher side, because of which the body fails to produce insulin.

7 Common Causes of Diabetes

The causes of diabetes are significant and vary from natural to artificial. The most common causes of diabetes are as follows:

1. Obesity and overweight

2. Lack of physical activities

3. Genetics and Family Health History

4. Age

5. Genetic Mutations

6. Hormonal diseases

7. Unhealthy Diet

Type 2 Diabetes Risk factors

2 Types of Diabetes

Diabetes generally is of two types: Type 1 and Type 2; however, there are some more kinds of it, like Gestational Diabetes which is only subjected to pregnant females. Let us now begin a detailed discussion about the types of diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes (Insulin dependent diabetes)

  • Type 1 diabetes is a condition when the human body’s immune system attacks the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans responsible for producing insulin. These cells are in the pancreas, and the actual reason for their destruction by the immune system is unknown, but it is considered that the immune system “mistakenly” destroys these pancreatic cells.

Insulin Dependent
  • Type 1 diabetes is also regarded as Juvenile Diabetes as this type is primarily seen in the younger age group. And in these cases, the human body fails to produce insulin, and a person has to be dependent on the external source of insulin for proper functioning. This is also called artificial insulin and is fed daily to the body.

  • This insulin-dependent diabetes is the most dangerous and serious one as the person has to rely on artificial insulin, which makes him/her vulnerable. It is not that the person who develops Type 1 diabetes necessarily belongs to a younger age group, but the disease can be found in people of all age groups. 

Type 2 Diabetes (Non-insulin dependent diabetes)

  • Type 2 Diabetes is considered more common than Type 1. Unlike Type 1 diabetes, this kind is common among people of higher age groups. In this kind of diabetes, the body can produce some natural insulin, but it may not be sufficient for the body's proper functioning. In Type 2 diabetes, Insulin Resistance is a common process in which the insulin fails to open the body's pancreatic cells that facilitate the entry of glucose. The primary causes of Type 2 diabetes are more of the external type. Among the people facing Type 2 diabetes, many of them are obese or have unhealthy habits.

  • Let us study Type 2 diabetes in a vice-versa approach and have a deeper familiarity with it. In Type 2 Diabetes, the insulin-targeted tissues demand a higher amount of insulin, but the beta cells fail to fulfil their demand as they are damaged during the initial processes.

Type 2 Diabetes

Difference between Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes (mellitus)

1. Symptoms

The symptoms of both Type 1 as well as Type 2 differ from each other. A person with Type 1 condition will experience the symptoms more rapidly than the person suffering from the Type 2 condition.  The symptoms of Type 2 diabetes are slower-appearing than Type 1. 

2. Regulation

When it comes to managing these two types of diabetes, there are few differences. Type 1 diabetes can be managed by taking artificial insulin, while in Type 2 diabetes, there are several ways to tackle the disease like appropriate medication, a healthy diet, artificial insulin, etc.

3. Cure

It is widely known that Type 1 diabetes cannot be entirely cured as its causes are natural, like genetics, etc., while Type 2 diabetes can be tackled with the help of consuming a proper diet, weight management, etc.

4. Risk Involved

People with Type 1 diabetes are more likely to catch infections and viruses than Type 2 patients. The immunity level of a person gets affected in Type 1 diabetes, while Type 2 diabetic people are more prone to be obese and overweight.

Among type 1 diabetes patients, the chances of cardiovascular diseases are higher, along with some risk of heart attack, kidney problems, difficulties in vision and hearing, etc. While in Type 2 diseases, problems like late healing occur.

Similarities between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

  • The primary similarity among the two types is that both occur in humans when the body fails to regulate glucose, which provides energy to the cells. Another important part where Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes coincides with each other is their effect on Cardiovascular Diseases. Both types of diabetes have a similar effect on cardiovascular diseases.

  • It is now well-established that both Type 1 Diabetes, as well as Type 2 Diabetes has a large number of differences that have been classified concerning various categories. The similarities among these two kinds tell us that there may be the difference when we study these types in a deeper sense. Still, while looking at a larger picture of diabetes, the disease itself is an extremely potent disease that can affect the human body in the longer run. We have established that the causes of Type 1 diabetes are out of human control, while Type 2 diabetes can be cured with proper medical supervision, diet, and weight management.

Word of Wisdom

The key to prevent both types of diabetes is by keeping a regular check on the blood sugar levels with the help of medical experts or by other means like portable devices. Thus, diabetes can be prevented to a certain extent, but when the condition becomes intense, the complications of the disease are chronic, and it provides a way for many severe diseases too. Stay aware of this life-changing disease by managing your daily habits and keeping a regular check on your overall health like lifestyle, diet, etc. We urge you to pledge towards living a healthy life and work to spread awareness about this chronic disease.

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